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18 Interesting Facts About Cephalopods

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Cephalopods are a fascinating group of marine animals that include octopuses, squids, cuttlefishes, and nautiluses. Here are 18 interesting facts about these amazing creatures:

1. The Name “Cephalopod” Means “Head-Foot”

The name “cephalopod” comes from the Greek words for “head” (kephalē) and “foot” (podos). This refers to the fact that cephalopods’ arms and tentacles are attached to their heads.

2. There Are Over 800 Living Species

There are over 800 living species of cephalopods that have been identified. New species continue to be discovered even today.

3. Cephalopods Have Blue Blood

Unlike vertebrates that have red blood from iron-rich hemoglobin, cephalopods have copper-rich hemocyanin which makes their blood blue.

4. They Have Beaks Like Parrots

Cephalopods have powerful beaks surrounded by their tentacles that they use to bite and tear food. Their beaks resemble those of parrots.

5. Octopuses Have Three Hearts

Octopuses have three hearts – one pumps blood around the body, the other two pump blood to the gills. Squid and cuttlefish only have one heart.

6. They Have the Most Complex Brains of All Invertebrates

Cephalopods have the largest and most complex brains of any invertebrates. Their brains wrap around their esophagi.

7. Their Arms Have Minds of Their Own

Over half of a cephalopod’s neurons are found in their arms and tentacles. Their arms can function semi-independently without input from the brain.

8. Cephalopods Are Masters of Disguise

Cephalopods like octopuses and cuttlefish can change their skin color, pattern, and texture in an instant to camouflage themselves.

9. The Mimic Octopus Can Imitate Other Sea Creatures

The mimic octopus can contort its body into shapes resembling lionsfish, sea snakes, and eels to scare away predators.

10. Some Cephalopods Squirt Ink for Defense

When threatened, some cephalopods like squids shoot out jets of dark ink to confuse predators while they escape.

11. The Colossal Squid Is the Largest Invertebrate

The colossal squid is up to 14 meters long and weighs up to 500 kg, making it the largest known invertebrate.

12. The Vampire Squid Has Glowing “Eyes”

The vampire squid has bioluminescent spots on the ends of its arms that look like glowing eyes.

13. Nautiluses Have More Than 90 Tentacles

Nautiluses have up to 90 tentacles – far more than other cephalopods. Females tend to have more tentacles than males.

14. Fossils Show How They Evolved from Shells

Ancient cephalopod fossils show how their shells got smaller over millions of years as they evolved into modern soft-bodied forms.

15. Cephalopods Only Live 1-5 Years

Most cephalopods only live for 1-5 years, even giant squid. Some nautilus species live over 20 years though.

16. Octopuses Have Short-Term and Long-Term Memory

Studies have shown that octopuses have both short-term and long-term memory. They can remember solutions to problems for months.

17. Cephalopods Communicate With Color and Patterns

Cephalopods communicate using variable skin colors, patterns and textures. Some can even “blink” by changing skin texture.

18. They Have Existed for 500+ Million Years

Cephalopods first appeared in the Cambrian period over 500 million years ago. They are one of the oldest groups of animals still around.

In summary, cephalopods are truly remarkable creatures – from their bizarre shapes, to their uncanny intelligence and ability to change color, they continue to fascinate humans. Learning more about these mysterious animals reveals what exceptional beings they really are!

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