Sea Lamprey from the Cheboygan River Trap Site

13 Interesting Facts About Lamprey

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Lampreys are primitive fish that belong to the superclass Agnatha, which means “no jaws.” They have round, sucker-like mouths filled with teeth that they use to latch onto hosts and feed on their blood and bodily fluids.

Though lampreys appear eel-like, they are more closely related to hagfish than eels. They inhabit both saltwater and freshwater environments across the Northern Hemisphere.

While parasitic lampreys have gotten a bad reputation for damaging fish populations, these ancient creatures are incredibly unique and serve an important ecological role.

Interesting Facts About Lamprey

  1. Ancient Lineage: Lampreys are one of the oldest lineages of vertebrates still in existence today. Based on fossil evidence, lampreys have changed little over the past 300 million years since they first emerged.
  2. Lifecycle: Most lampreys have a complex lifecycle where they go through drastic changes in appearance and behavior. They start as blind larvae (ammocoetes) before transforming into their adult form.
  3. Parasitic Feeders: Most lampreys are parasitic and use their sucker-like mouth to attach to fish and feed on bodily fluids and blood. A few species are non-parasitic and do not feed as adults.
  4. Jawless: Lampreys lack hinged jaws and instead have oral discs lined with teeth that they use to rasp through flesh. Their lack of jaws places them in the agnatha (no jaw) superclass.
  5. Cartilaginous Skeleton: Unlike bony fish and vertebrates, lampreys have a skeleton made of cartilage rather than bone. This is another primitive feature they possess.
  6. Unique Respiration: Instead of having gills covered by an operculum like other fish, lampreys have pouches covered by a thin membrane where gas exchange occurs.
  7. Salt and Freshwater: Some lamprey species migrate between fresh and saltwater during their lifecycle. Others occupy just one type of habitat.
  8. Reproduction: Most lampreys spawn by building nests of stones where females lay tens of thousands of eggs that males then fertilize.
  9. Threats to Biodiversity: Pollution and habitat loss threaten many lamprey populations. At least four species may already be extinct, and many others are declining.
  10. Commercial Uses: Lamprey meat is considered a delicacy in some parts of Europe. Their medicinal value has been recognized since ancient times.
  11. Ecological Roles: As detritivores (during their larval stage) and as prey for other wildlife, lampreys play integral ecological roles despite their parasitic feeding.
  12. Invasive Species Concerns: In the Great Lakes of North America, invasive sea lampreys caused severe losses to lake trout fisheries by parasitizing and killing large numbers of fish. Control efforts are underway.
  13. Survivors from Deep Time: As survivors from hundreds of millions of years ago, lampreys provide a valuable window into understanding early vertebrate evolution.
Oldest Lineage300 million years old
LifecycleLarvae to adult transformation
FeedingParasitic feeders
JawNo hinged jaws


While the parasitic feeding and invasive potential of lampreys may cast them in a negative light, these jawless fish have persevered for hundreds of millions of years as one of the most primitive surviving lineages of vertebrates.

Learning more about their unique adaptations and evolutionary history can provide deeper insight into the early stages of vertebrate evolution. And maintaining lamprey biodiversity has inherent ecological value.

So next time you hear about lampreys, remember there’s more to these ancient creatures than just their vampire-like feeding!

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