Hamadryas Baboon, Dierenpark Emmen, Netherlands - 1718

13 Interesting Facts About Baboons

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Baboons are highly social and adaptable primates that inhabit various habitats across Africa and Arabia. As some of the largest monkeys in the world, baboons display complex behaviors and advanced intelligence that have fascinated researchers and observers for decades.

This article will explore 13 captivating facts about baboons related to their social structure, communication methods, habitat range, omnivorous diets, lifespan in the wild, size and mass dimensions, conservation status, intelligence rankings, infanticide practices, genetic similarity to humans, adaptability to changing conditions, cultural roles, and learned tool use abilities.

Understanding more about these intriguing primates provides insight into our own evolution, the principles guiding social animal groups, and the importance of conservation amidst human encroachment on wildlife habitats. Read on to uncover what makes baboons such successful, engaging species.


1. Social Structure

Baboons live in troops that can have up to 300 members. These troops have complex social structures and hierarchies. Females inherit their rank from their mothers while males establish dominance through physical power.

2. Communication

Baboons use over 30 distinct vocalizations to communicate, including grunts, barks, screams, and more. They also use nonvocal gestures like lip-smacking, yawning, and shrugging.

3. Habitat

Most baboon species live in African savannas and grasslands, though some also inhabit woodlands, subdeserts, and mountains across Africa and Arabia.

4. Diet

Baboons are omnivorous and eat a highly varied diet including fruits, seeds, roots, bark, rodents, birds, eggs, and even small antelopes or sheep.

5. Lifespan

In the wild, baboons live about 30 years on average. In captivity they can live up to 45 years.

6. Size

Baboons grow to 20-34 inches long from head to tail, with equally long tails of 16-23 inches. They weigh 33-82 pounds.

7. Conservation Status

Most baboon species are of Least Concern, though the Guinea baboon is listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN Red List.

8. Intelligence

Baboons are highly intelligent primates that have been taught to recognize written words and do basic math. Their brains are twice the size of a macaque monkey’s brain.

9. Infanticide

When new males take over a troop, they often kill nursing infants to bring females into estrus so they can father their own offspring.

10. Relation to Humans

Baboons and humans share 94% genetic similarity and some researchers believe they can provide insight into human evolution.

11. Adaptability

Baboons are incredibly adaptable primates that can readily adjust their behavior to changes in climate, habitat loss, and other challenges.

12. In Culture

The hamadryas baboon was considered a sacred animal in ancient Egypt and represented the god Thoth.

13. Tool Use

Some baboon troops use rocks and sticks as tools to help them access hard to reach foods like insects, tubers, nuts, and shellfish.


As these interesting facts show, baboons are captivating primates that share many similarities with our own species. Their complex social networks, methods of communication, omnivorous diets, advanced intelligence, and learned behaviors continue to intrigue researchers and observers.

Baboons also face threats from habitat loss and human encroachment across Africa. Understanding more about their ecology, adaptability, and relation to our evolutionary past can help inform conservation priorities for protecting vulnerable wildlife species. With flexible behaviors, close-knit social bonds, and insightful cognitive abilities, baboons provide a model organism for understanding the principles guiding social animal groups and perhaps our own social evolution as humans.

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